What Is an Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH Blood Test)?
- Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) is a protein made by the cells that surround each egg
- AMH is produced the most during the small pre-antral stages
- AMH stops producing as follicles grow and nearly no AMH is produced once a follicle hits 8mm in size
- The more eggs a woman has, the higher her AMH level should be
- A simple blood test can determine a woman’s AMH levels
Research tells us that the size of the group of growing follicles influences the number of remaining primordial follicles which are believed to reflect a woman’s remaining egg supply (ovarian reserve).
A woman is born with all of the eggs she will ever have. Most women have excellent reproductive potential until their late 30s. Some patients are less fortunate. Low AMH levels accurately predict which women have fewer eggs of lesser quality and therefore a lower chance of conceiving.
AMH levels can be drawn at any point in the menstrual cycle and results generally do not vary cycle-to-cycle. For the best results, stop birth control pills 1-2 months prior to having an AMH test done.
Why an AMH Blood Test Is Important for Predicting Your Reproductive Potential?
- Normal AMH levels are greater than 1.0 ng/ml
- Levels less than 1.0 ng/ml are concerning and might lead to earlier fertility treatment to maximize the likelihood of a successful pregnancy
- Levels greater than 3.0 ng/ml are also concerning and may be predictive of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
- Undetectable AMH levels predict very poor reproductive performance
|AMH Blood Level||Interpretation|
|Over 3.0 ng/ml||High|
|Over 1.0 ng/ml||Normal|
|0.7 – 0.9 ng/ml||Below Normal|
|0.3 – 0.6 ng/ml||Low|
|Less than 0.3 ng/ml||Very Low|
Please realize that the values in the table above are for reference only. It is recommended that you contact a fertility specialist if you are concerned with the results of your AMH blood test.
AMH is an excellent test for ovarian reserve, which correlates with egg quality/number. Measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on the third day of a period has also been shown to be a good test of ovarian reserve. However, as women age through their mid 30s and early 40s, AMH is a much better ovarian reserve test.
AMH level is one measure of reproductive performance. Age is also very important. Additional critical fertility tests include evaluation of fallopian tubes (either by hysterosalpingography or FemVue), and a semen analysis.
Women with higher AMH levels typically respond better to ovarian stimulation during an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. This is because women with a lower AMH level produce a lower number of eggs.
Learn more about Fertility Testing.
About the Author
Arthur Castelbaum, MD
Dr. Arthur Castelbaum, a world-class reproductive endocrinologist, received his medical degree from Washington University, and completed his residency training and postgraduate fellowship in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center. He is board certified in OB/GYN and subspecialty board certified in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. He has also been featured in Philadelphia Magazine and on The Discovery Channel. He also serves as a reviewer for the journals Fertility and Sterility and Human Reproduction.
Dr. Castelbaum won Vitals.com’s Compassionate Doctor Award for being one of the most caring doctors in the US 5 years in a row. Only 1% of all doctors in the US are bestowed this honor by their patients.